By a News Reporter-Staff News Editor at Life Science Weekly — From Alexandria, Virginia, NewsRx journalists report that a patent by the inventors Clarkson, Robert Lewis (Elwood, IN); Laskar, William Joseph (Tipton, IN); Lively, Kyle Jay (Tipton, IN); Marshall, Gregory Charles (Arcadia, IN), filed on August 3, 2012, was published online on July 1, 2014 (see also Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.).
The patent’s assignee for patent number 8766063 is Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc. (Johnston, IA).
News editors obtained the following quote from the background information supplied by the inventors: “Wheat is grown worldwide and is the most widely adapted cereal. There are five main wheat market classes. They include the four common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) classes: hard red winter, hard red spring, soft red winter, and white. The fifth class is durum (Triticum turgidum L.). Common wheats are used in a variety of food products such as bread, cookies, cakes, crackers, and noodles. In general the hard wheat classes are milled into flour used for breads and the soft wheat classes are milled into flour used for pastries and crackers. Wheat starch is used in the food and paper industries, as laundry starches, and in other products. Because of its use in baking, the grain quality of wheat is very important. To test the grain quality of wheat for use as flour, milling properties are analyzed. Important milling properties are relative hardness or softness, weight per bushel of wheat (test weight), siftability of the flour, break flour yield, middlings flour yield, total flour yield, flour ash content, and wheat-to-flour protein conversion. Good processing quality for flour is also important. Good quality characteristics for flour from soft wheats include low to medium-low protein content, a low water absorption, production of large-diameter test cookies and large volume cakes. Wheat glutenins and gliadins, which together confer the properties of elasticity and extensibility, play an important role in the grain quality. Changes in quality and quantity of these proteins change the end product for which the wheat can be used.”
As a supplement to the background information on this patent, NewsRx correspondents also obtained the inventors’ summary information for this patent: “The present invention relates to a new and distinctive wheat variety, designated W000582Z2 which has been the result of years of careful breeding and selection as part of a wheat breeding program. There are numerous steps in the development of any novel, desirable plant germplasm. Plant breeding begins with the analysis and definition of problems and weaknesses of the current germplasm, the establishment of program goals, and the definition of specific breeding objectives. The next step is selection of germplasm that possess the traits to meet the program goals. The goal is to combine in a single variety an improved combination of desirable traits from the parental germplasm. These important traits may include higher seed yield, resistance to diseases and insects, tolerance to drought and heat, improved grain quality, and better agronomic qualities.
“Field crops are bred through techniques that take advantage of the plant’s method of pollination. A plant is self-pollinated if pollen from one flower is transferred to the same or another flower of the same plant. A plant is sib-pollinated when individuals within the same family or line are used for pollination. A plant is cross-pollinated if the pollen comes from a flower on a different plant from a different family or line. The term cross-pollination herein does not include self-pollination or sib-pollination. Wheat plants (Triticum aestivum L.), are recognized to be naturally self-pollinated plants which, while capable of undergoing cross-pollination, rarely do so in nature. Thus intervention for control of pollination is critical to the establishment of superior varieties.
“A cross between two different homozygous lines produces a uniform population of hybrid plants that may be heterozygous for many gene loci. A cross of two heterozygous plants each that differ at a number of gene loci will produce a population of plants that differ genetically and will not be uniform. Regardless of parentage, plants that have been self-pollinated and selected for type for many generations become homozygous at almost all gene loci and produce a uniform population of true breeding progeny. The term ‘homozygous plant’ is hereby defined as a plant with homozygous genes at 95\% or more of its loci.
“Choice of breeding or selection methods depends on the mode of plant reproduction, the heritability of the trait(s) being improved, and the type of variety used commercially (e.g., F1 hybrid variety, pureline variety, etc.). For highly heritable traits, a choice of superior individual plants evaluated at a single location will be effective, whereas for traits with low heritability, selection should be based on mean values obtained from replicated evaluations of families of related plants. Popular selection methods commonly include pedigree selection, modified pedigree selection, mass selection, and recurrent selection.
“The complexity of inheritance influences choice of the breeding method. In general breeding starts with the crossing of two genotypes (a ‘breeding cross’), each of which may have one or more desirable characteristics that is lacking in the other or which complements the other. If the two original parents do not provide all the desired characteristics, other sources can be included by making more crosses. In each successive filial generation, F1.fwdarw.F2; F2.fwdarw.F3; F3.fwdarw.F4; F4.fwdarw.F5, etc., plants are selfed to increase the homozygosity of the line. Typically in a breeding program five or more generations of selection and selfing are practiced to obtain a homozygous plant.
“Pedigree breeding is commonly used for the improvement of self-pollinating crops. Two parents that possess favorable, complementary traits are crossed to produce an F1. An F2 population is produced by selfing or sibbing one or several F1’s. Selection of the best individuals may begin in the F2 population; then, beginning in the F3, the best individuals in the best families are selected. Replicated testing of families can begin in the F4 generation to improve the effectiveness of selection for traits with low heritability. At an advanced stage of inbreeding (i.e., F5, F6 and F7), the best lines or mixtures of phenotypically similar lines are tested for potential release as new varieties.
“Backcross breeding has been used to transfer genes for simply inherited, qualitative, traits from a donor parent into a desirable homozygous variety that is utilized as the recurrent parent. The source of the traits to be transferred is called the donor parent. After the initial cross, individuals possessing the desired trait or traits of the donor parent are selected and then repeatedly crossed (backcrossed) to the recurrent parent. The resulting plant is expected to have the attributes of the recurrent parent (e.g., variety) plus the desirable trait or traits transferred from the donor parent. This approach has been used extensively for breeding disease resistant varieties.
“Each wheat breeding program should include a periodic, objective evaluation of the efficiency of the breeding procedure. Evaluation criteria vary depending on the goal and objectives, but should include gain from selection per year based on comparisons to an appropriate standard, overall value of the advanced breeding lines, and number of successful varieties produced per unit of input (e.g., per year, per dollar expended, etc.).
“Various recurrent selection techniques are used to improve quantitatively inherited traits controlled by numerous genes. The use of recurrent selection in self-pollinating crops depends on the ease of pollination and the number of hybrid offspring from each successful cross. Recurrent selection can be used to improve populations of either self- or cross-pollinated crops. A genetically variable population of heterozygous individuals is either identified or created by intercrossing several different parents. The best plants are selected based on individual superiority, outstanding progeny, or excellent combining ability. The selected plants are intercrossed to produce a new population in which further cycles of selection are continued. Plants from the populations can be selected and selfed to create new varieties.
“Another breeding method is single-seed descent. This procedure in the strict sense refers to planting a segregating population, harvesting a sample of one seed per plant, and using the one-seed sample to plant the next generation. When the population has been advanced from the F2 to the desired level of inbreeding, the plants from which lines are derived will each trace to different F2 individuals. The number of plants in a population declines each generation due to failure of some seeds to germinate or some plants to produce at least one seed. As a result, not all of the F2 plants originally sampled in the population will be represented by a progeny when generation advance is completed. In a multiple-seed procedure, wheat breeders commonly harvest one or more spikes (heads) from each plant in a population and thresh them together to form a bulk. Part of the bulk is used to plant the next generation and part is put in reserve. The procedure has been referred to as modified single-seed descent. The multiple-seed procedure has been used to save labor at harvest. It is considerably faster to thresh spikes with a machine than to remove one seed from each by hand for the single-seed procedure. The multiple-seed procedure also makes it possible to plant the same number of seeds of a population each generation of inbreeding. Enough seeds are harvested to make up for those plants that did not germinate or produce seed.
“Bulk breeding can also be used. In the bulk breeding method an F2 population is grown. The seed from the populations is harvested in bulk and a sample of the seed is used to make a planting the next season. This cycle can be repeated several times. In general when individual plants are expected to have a high degree of homozygosity, individual plants are selected, tested, and increased for possible use as a variety.
“Molecular markers including techniques such as Starch Gel Electrophoresis, Isozyme Eletrophoresis, Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms (RFLPs), Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNAs (RAPDs), Arbitrarily Primed Polymerase Chain Reaction (AP-PCR), DNA Amplification Fingerprinting (DAF), Sequence Characterized Amplified Regions (SCARs), Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms (AFLPs), Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs), and Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) may be used in plant breeding methods. One use of molecular markers is Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) mapping. QTL mapping is the use of markers, which are known to be closely linked to alleles that have measurable effects on a quantitative trait. Selection in the breeding process is based upon the accumulation of markers linked to the positive effecting alleles and/or the elimination of the markers linked to the negative effecting alleles from the plant’s genome.
“Molecular markers can also be used during the breeding process for the selection of qualitative traits. For example, markers closely linked to alleles or markers containing sequences within the actual alleles of interest can be used to select plants that contain the alleles of interest during a backcrossing breeding program. The markers can also be used to select for the genome of the recurrent parent and against the markers of the donor parent. Using this procedure can minimize the amount of genome from the donor parent that remains in the selected plants. It can also be used to reduce the number of crosses back to the recurrent parent needed in a backcrossing program (Openshaw et al. Marker-assisted Selection in Backcross Breeding. In: Proceedings Symposium of the Analysis of Molecular Marker Data, 5-6 Aug. 1994, pp. 41-43. Crop Science Society of America, Corvallis, Oreg.). The use of molecular markers in the selection process is often called Genetic Marker Enhanced Selection.
“The production of double haploids can also be used for the development of homozygous lines in the breeding program. Double haploids are produced by the doubling of a set of chromosomes (1N) from a heterozygous plant to produce a completely homozygous individual. This can be advantageous because the process omits the generations of selfing needed to obtain a homozygous plant from a heterozygous source. Various methodologies of making double haploid plants in wheat have been developed (Laurie, D. A. and S. Reymondie, Plant Breeding, 1991, v. 106:182-189. Singh, N. et al., Cereal Research Communications, 2001, v. 29:289-296; Redha, A. et al., Plant Cell Tissue and Organ Culture, 2000, v. 63:167-172; U.S. Pat. No. 6,362,393)
“Though pure-line varieties are the predominate form of wheat grown for commercial wheat production hybrid wheat is also used. Hybrid wheats are produced with the help of cytoplasmic male sterility, nuclear genetic male sterility, or chemicals. Various combinations of these three male sterility systems have been used in the production of hybrid wheat.
“Descriptions of other breeding methods that are commonly used for different traits and crops can be found in one of several reference books (e.g., Allard, Principles of Plant Breeding, 1960; Simmonds, Principles of Crop Improvement, 1979; editor Heyne, Wheat and Wheat Improvement, 1987; Allan, ‘Wheat’, Chapter 18, Principles of Crop Development, vol. 2, Fehr editor, 1987).
“Promising advanced breeding lines are thoroughly tested and compared to appropriate standards in environments representative of the commercial target area(s). The best lines are candidates for new commercial varieties; those still deficient in a few traits may be used as parents to produce new populations for further selection.
“A most difficult task is the identification of individuals that are genetically superior, because for most traits the true genotypic value is masked by other confounding plant traits or environmental factors. One method of identifying a superior genotype is to observe its performance relative to other experimental genotypes and to a widely grown standard variety. Generally a single observation is inconclusive, so replicated observations are required to provide a better estimate of its genetic worth.
“A breeder uses various methods to help determine which plants should be selected from the segregating populations and ultimately which lines will be used for commercialization. In addition to the knowledge of the germplasm and other skills the breeder uses, a part of the selection process is dependent on experimental design coupled with the use of statistical analysis. Experimental design and statistical analysis are used to help determine which plants, which family of plants, and finally which lines are significantly better or different for one or more traits of interest. Experimental design methods are used to control error so that differences between two lines can be more accurately determined. Statistical analysis includes the calculation of mean values, determination of the statistical significance of the sources of variation, and the calculation of the appropriate variance components. Five and one percent significance levels are customarily used to determine whether a difference that occurs for a given trait is real or due to the environment or experimental error.
“Plant breeding is the genetic manipulation of plants. The goal of wheat breeding is to develop new, unique and superior wheat varieties. In practical application of a wheat breeding program, the breeder initially selects and crosses two or more parental lines, followed by repeated selfing and selection, producing many new genetic combinations. The breeder can theoretically generate billions of different genetic combinations via crossing, selfing and mutations. The breeder has no direct control at the cellular level. Therefore, two breeders will never develop exactly the same line.
“Each year, the plant breeder selects the germplasm to advance to the next generation. This germplasm is grown under unique and different geographical, climatic and soil conditions, and further selections are then made during and at the end of the growing season.
“Proper testing should detect major faults and establish the level of superiority or improvement over current varieties. In addition to showing superior performance, there must be a demand for a new variety. The new variety must be compatible with industry standards, or must create a new market. The introduction of a new variety may incur additional costs to the seed producer, the grower, processor and consumer, for special advertising and marketing, altered seed and commercial production practices, and new product utilization. The testing preceding release of a new variety should take into consideration research and development costs as well as technical superiority of the final variety. It must also be feasible to produce seed easily and economically.
“These processes, which lead to the final step of marketing and distribution, can take from six to twelve years from the time the first cross is made. Therefore, development of new varieties is a time-consuming process that requires precise forward planning, efficient use of resources, and a minimum of changes in direction.
“Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), is an important and valuable field crop. Thus, a continuing goal of wheat breeders is to develop stable, high yielding wheat varieties that are agronomically sound and have good grain quality for its intended use. To accomplish this goal, the wheat breeder must select and develop wheat plants that have the traits that result in superior varieties.
“According to the invention, there is provided a novel wheat variety, designated W000582Z2 and processes for making W000582Z2. This invention relates to seed of wheat variety W000582Z2, to the plants of wheat variety W000582Z2, to plant parts of wheat variety W000582Z2, and to processes for making a wheat plant that comprise crossing wheat variety W000582Z2 with another wheat plant. This invention also relates to processes for making a wheat plant containing in its genetic material one or more traits introgressed into W000582Z2 through backcross conversion and/or transformation, and to the wheat seed, plant and plant parts produced thereby. This invention also relates to the creation of variants by mutagenesis or transformation of wheat W000582Z2. This invention further relates to a hybrid wheat seed, plant or plant part produced by crossing the variety W000582Z2 or a locus conversion of W000582Z2 with another wheat variety.”
For additional information on this patent, see: Clarkson, Robert Lewis; Laskar, William Joseph; Lively, Kyle Jay; Marshall, Gregory Charles. Wheat Variety W000582Z2. U.S. Patent Number 8766063, filed August 3, 2012, and published online on July 1, 2014. Patent URL: http://patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO1&Sect2=HITOFF&d=PALL&p=1&u=\%2Fnetahtml\%2FPTO\%2Fsrchnum.htm&r=1&f=G&l=50&s1=8766063.PN.&OS=PN/8766063RS=PN/8766063
Keywords for this news article include: Marketing, Advertising, Pioneer Hi-Bred International Inc.
Our reports deliver fact-based news of research and discoveries from around the world. Copyright 2014, NewsRx LLC