"Methods of Genomic Evaluation in Livestock" in Patent Application Approval Process (USPTO 20170275692)

Life Science Weekly |

By a News Reporter-Staff News Editor at Life Science Weekly -- A patent application by the inventors Moreno, Juan F. (College Station, TX); Dobrinsky, John (Oregon, WI); Kendall, David (Beloit, WI); Heuer, Claas (Heidmoor, DE), filed on , was made available online on , according to news reporting originating from Washington, D.C., by NewsRx correspondents (see also Inguran, LLC).

This patent application is assigned to Inguran, LLC.

The following quote was obtained by the news editors from the background information supplied by the inventors: "When producing future generations of animals of the highest genetic merit or elite genomic value, a critical selection of potential breeding animals must be made. Only germplasm from the most elite animals can be harvested and used at the genetic nucleus level. Germplasm can include but is not exclusive to gametes such as sperm and oocytes, but also embryos, fetuses, neonates and somatic cells or tissues from living animals.

"To that end, genomic testing in the livestock industry has become a valuable tool in evaluating young animals and in increasing genetic progress by increasing the accuracy of selection and decreasing the generation interval. Typically, young animals are genomically tested shortly after birth or as young adults, therefore requiring that significant resources be devoted to supporting the mother during fetal gestation even though the genetic merit of the offspring is unknown.

"Embryo transfer is a procedure that follows fertilization (either in vitro or in vivo) and involves the transfer of one or more embryos, from a test tube or the biological mother, to a recipient animal for gestation and birth. Embryo transfer is another tool for increasing genetic progress, since it increases selection intensity by allowing the use of a smaller number of elite females as mothers of many offspring and may also decrease the generation interval in the case where female egg donors are made to ovulate sooner than they normally would be able to give birth. In the livestock industry, the major expense portion of any embryo transfer program is the cost and maintenance of recipient animals into which the embryos are placed for gestation, which may limit its application.

"Cloning is yet another tool that can be used to increase genetic progress by increasing the accuracy of selection. See Bousquet and Blondin, 'Potential Uses of Cloning in Breeding Schemes: Dairy Cattle,' Cloning and Stem Cells, vol. 6, no. 2, abstract (2004). Cloning can also be used to speed up genetic dissemination of genes from animals of exceptionally high genetic merit to the commercial population. Id. The applicability of cloning has to date been limited, however, due to the lag time before a cloned animal can participate in a breeding program. Id. at 193.

"Accordingly, there is a need to increase genetic progress and/or genetic dissemination by increasing and improving the use of genomic testing, embryo transfer and cloning in the livestock industry, as well as to reduce the costs and maintenance associated with maintaining recipient animals used in embryo transfer."

In addition to the background information obtained for this patent application, NewsRx journalists also obtained the inventors' summary information for this patent application: "Certain embodiments of the invention encompass a method of determining a genomic estimated breeding value (GEBV) of a non-human mammalian fetus comprising removing amniotic fluid from an amniotic sac containing a viable, non-human mammalian fetus; isolating one or more amniocytes from the amniotic fluid; extracting DNA from the one or more amniocytes; genotyping the DNA to obtain a genotype for the fetus; and determining a GEBV of the fetus based on the genotype. In certain embodiments, the invention further comprises one or more of the following steps: birthing the viable, non-human mammalian fetus; amplifying the DNA; culturing the one or more amniocytes; and creating a clone from the one or more amniocytes using nuclear transfer. In some embodiments of the invention, amniotic fluid is removed or extracted between day 30 and day 90 of gestation of the fetus.

"In certain embodiments, the amniocytes for use in the invention are amniotic fluid-derived mesenchymal stem cells. In a specific embodiment, DNA is extracted from ten or fewer such cells. A certain aspect of the invention contemplates that the DNA is genotyped using a BovineSNP50 v1 BeadChip, Bovine SNP v2 BeadChip, Bovine 3K BeadChip, Bovide LD BeadChip, Bovine HD BeadChip, Geneseek.RTM. Genomic Profiler.TM. LD BeadChip or Geneseek.RTM. Genomic Profiler.TM. HD BeadChip. An additional embodiment of the invention further comprises verifying parentage of the fetus based on the genotype.

"In other embodiments of the invention, the GEBV is used to determine Genomic Predicted Transmitting Ability (GPTA). In a further embodiments, GEBVs are used in calculating the Genomic Total Performance Index (GTPI.RTM.), which is a genomic selection index used in dairy animals. In yet a further embodiment of the invention, it is contemplated that GEBVs and/or GPTAs are estimated or determined for one or more traits, including but not limited to the following: protein; feed efficiency; dairy form; feet and legs composite; somatic cell score; daughter calving ease; fat; udder composite; productive life; fertility index; and daughter stillbirth. In certain embodiments of the invention, feed efficiency is equal to dollar value of milk produced less feed costs for extra milk and less extra maintenance costs. In further embodiments, the fertility index is a function of heifer conception rate, cow conception rate and daughter pregnancy rate.

"Other embodiments of the invention encompass a method of determining a GEBV or GPTA of a non-human mammalian fetus comprising extracting DNA from a first fetal amniocyte; genotyping the DNA to obtain a genotype for the fetus; and determining a GEBV of the fetus based on the genotype. In another embodiment, the method further comprises the step of isolating the first fetal amniocyte from amniotic fluid, or the step of cloning the fetus using a second fetal amniocyte. In some embodiments of the invention, the first amniocyte or the second amniocyte comprises an amniotic fluid-derived mesenchymal stem cell.



"In certain embodiments, the invention also encompasses a method of increasing the genetic progress in a non-human mammalian line, herd or genetic nucleus, comprising extracting DNA from a first amniocyte derived from a fetus from the line, herd or genetic nucleus; genotyping the DNA to obtain a genotype for the fetus; determining a GEBV or a GPTA of the fetus based on the genotype; selecting the fetus as a parent for the line or herd based on the GEBV or the GPTA; and cloning the fetus to produce a clone. In a further embodiment, the step of cloning the fetus comprises using a second amniocyte derived from the fetus. In yet another embodiment, the first amniocyte or the second amniocyte comprises an amniotic fluid-derived mesenchymal stem cell. In yet another embodiment, the method further comprises the steps of fertilizing an egg from the clone with sperm from a male in the line or herd to produce an embryo; and transferring the embryo into a female recipient for gestation. In certain embodiments, the sperm is sex-sorted sperm of which at least 60% bear an X-chromosome.

"Another embodiment of the invention encompasses a method of increasing genetic progress in a population of non-human mammals comprising extracting DNA from one or more amniocytes derived from a fetus from the population; genotyping the DNA to obtain a genotype for the fetus; selecting the fetus as a parent for the population based on the genotype; and cloning the fetus to produce a clone. In a further embodiment, the step of cloning the fetus comprises using an amniocyte derived from the fetus. In another embodiment, the one or more amniocytes comprise amniotic fluid-derived mesenchymal stem cells. In yet a further embodiment, the aforementioned method further comprises the step of determining a GEBV or a GPTA of the fetus based on the genotype. In a specific embodiment of this method, the genotype is an SNP genotype. The aforementioned method may also comprise the additional steps of fertilizing an oocyte from the clone with sperm from a male in the population to produce an embryo; and transferring the embryo into a female recipient for gestation. Finally, in a further embodiment, the sperm is sex-sorted sperm of which at least 60% bear an X-chromosome.

"The invention also encompasses a method of genetic dissemination comprising extracting DNA from one or more amniocytes derived from a fetus; genotyping the DNA to obtain a genotype for the fetus; and selecting the fetus as a donor of oocytes for use in IVF based on the genotype. This method may further comprise the steps of collecting one or more oocytes from the donor; and fertilizing the one or more oocytes with sex-sorted sperm to produce one or more female embryos. In a yet a further embodiment, the method may also comprise the step of transferring the one or more female embryos into one or more recipient females. In certain embodiments, the one or more recipient females comprise production animals. This method may also further comprise the steps of producing one or more heifers or cows from the one or more female embryos; and producing milk from the one or more heifers or cows. Finally, in another embodiment, this method may further comprise the step of determining a GEBV or a GPTA of the fetus based on the genotype, and in an even more specific embodiment, the genotype is an SNP genotype.

"The invention in another embodiment encompasses a method of determining a genomic estimated breeding value (GEBV) or a genomic predicted transmitting ability (GPTA) of a non-human mammalian fetus or embryo comprising extracting DNA from the one or more fetal or embryonic cells derived from an embryo or fetus that remains viable; genotyping the DNA to obtain a genotype for the fetus or embryo; determining a GEBV or a GPTA of the fetus or embryo based on the genotype; and producing offspring developed from the fetus or embryo. In one embodiment, the step of producing offspring developed from the fetus comprises transferring the fetus or embryo into a recipient and allowing gestation and birth of the fetus or embryo as a developed infant.

"The invention in another embodiment encompasses a method of increasing genetic progress in a population of non-human mammals comprising extracting DNA from one or more fetal or embryonic cells derived from an embryo or fetus that remains viable; genotyping the DNA to obtain a genotype for the fetus or embryo; selecting the fetus or embryo as a parent for the population based on the genotype; and producing offspring developed from the fetus or embryo. In one embodiment, the step of producing offspring developed from the fetus comprises transferring the fetus or embryo into a recipient and allowing gestation and birth of the fetus or embryo as a developed infant.

"The invention in yet another embodiment encompasses a method of genetic dissemination comprising extracting DNA from the one or more fetal or embryonic cells derived from an embryo or fetus that remains viable; genotyping the DNA to obtain a genotype for the fetus or embryo; selecting the fetus or embryo as a donor of oocytes for use in IVF based on the genotype; and producing offspring developed from the fetus or embryo. In one embodiment, the step of producing offspring developed from the fetus comprises transferring the fetus or embryo into a recipient and allowing gestation and birth of the fetus or embryo as a developed infant.

"Embodiments of the invention encompass numerous species of non-human mammals, and the invention should be understood not to be limited to the species of non-human mammals described by the specific examples within this application. Rather the specific examples within this application are intended to be illustrative of the varied and numerous species of non-human mammals to which the methods of the invention may be applied. Embodiments of the invention, for example, encompass animals having commercial value for meat or dairy production such as swine, ovine, bovine, equine, deer, elk, buffalo, or the like (naturally the mammals used for meat or dairy production may vary from culture to culture). They also encompass various domesticated non-human mammalian species such as canines and felines, as well as primates, including but not limited to chimpanzees, and gorillas, as well as whales, dolphins and other marine mammals."

URL and more information on this patent application, see: Moreno, Juan F.; Dobrinsky, John; Kendall, David; Heuer, Claas. Methods of Genomic Evaluation in Livestock. Filed and posted . Patent URL: http://appft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO1&Sect2=HITOFF&d=PG01&p=1&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsrchnum.html&r=1&f=G&l=50&s1=%2220170275692%22.PGNR.&OS=DN/20170275692&RS=DN/20170275692

Keywords for this news article include: Ovum, Oocytes, Inguran LLC, Transferrin, DNA Research, Beta-Globulins, Blood Proteins, Carrier Proteins, Acute-Phase Proteins, Iron-Binding Proteins.

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